Home Baseball Content Baseball Injuries: Are Pitchers Really Getting “Babied?”

Baseball Injuries: Are Pitchers Really Getting “Babied?”

Written on July 10, 2014 at 3:51 am, by Eric Cressey

Today, I want to tackle another argument that gets thrown out there a lot nowadays in the baseball world:

"Pitchers are getting hurt because we're babying them."

Usually, this phrase comes from more of an “old school” coach who simply doesn’t appreciate how substantially the game has changed over the last 20-30 years. Flash back to the 1980s and 1990s, and you’ll see the following differences:

1. Kids weren’t heavily abused with year-round baseball at a young age, so there weren’t as many damaged goods arriving in collegiate and professional baseball.

2. Strength and conditioning was simply non-existent at all levels. As quantifiable proof of this evolution of the game, recent research has shown that the average MLB player’s body weight increased by roughly 12% between 1990 and 2010. Bigger, stronger athletes throw harder – and guys who throw harder get injured more frequently. All those guys who threw 86-90mph in the 1980s would be out of jobs if they played nowadays and didn’t strength train.

3. Video analysis was archaic back then as compared to now. Nowadays, throwers at all levels can optimize mechanics much more easily with the help of technology. Better mechanics should reduce injuries, but we have to realize that optimizing mechanics usually also equates to greater velocity. Efficient movement is efficient movement, so this is likely a “wash” in terms of injury risk.

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4. Travel wasn’t as stressful at the professional level. The game has expanded to include more teams (which equates to more travel) and nastier time zone changes. That wreaks havoc on players more than the typical fan realizes.

5. The season was slightly shorter. This is likely a trivial difference, but with the expansion of the wild card at the MLB level – as well as the World Baseball Classic every few years – the season has been stretched out a bit. Anecdotally, it seems that more and more players are heading out to play winter ball as well.

6. There weren’t nearly as many guys throwing cutters. This pitch isn’t very friendly on the elbow, and it seems like everyone is throwing it nowadays.

7. The pitching side of the game wasn’t as specialized. Nowadays, outside of starters, you have set-up guys, lefty specialists, righty specialists, and closers. It seems counterintuitive, but the more specialized a pitcher you are, the more likely you are to pitch frequently. And, this doesn’t just include getting into games, but also the number of times pitchers throw in the bullpen, but don’t go in the game (a scenario that is not-so-affectionately known as a “dry hump” in professional baseball).

800px-Steve_Cishek_2013

8. Sports medicine wasn’t as advanced. This is a bit of a leap of faith, but I’d say that modern medicine has made it possible for pitchers at the highest level to throw through a lot more arm discomfort than in previous decades. The anti-inflammatories/analgesics are more powerful and they’re sometimes handed out like candy, so you have a lot of scenarios where minor issues become major injuries over the course of time because they’re masked pharmaceutically.

Take these eight points all together, and you realize that we have taken already damaged pitchers and provided them with tools (strength and conditioning and video analysis) to help them move at greater velocities than ever before, throwing more stressful pitches than ever before – and then pushed them out into a longer and more stressful competitive calendar than ever before – where they pitcher more frequently than ever before. And, sports medicine has trended more toward making it easier for them to push through injuries than preventing injuries in the first place.

How the heck does that equate to us “babying” them?

This is on par with sending an experienced racecar driver out to the Daytona 500 track in a beat-up old lemon and having him drive it as fast as he can for 250 days per year. Would you be surprised if the car broke down, or the driver crashed and was injured? Would you say that the car or driver was “babied?”

Go ahead and let all your starters throw 150 pitches per game, and leave ‘em out there for 300 innings. Dry hump all your relievers until they don’t sit down in the bullpen all season. And, be sure to let me know how it goes.

The current system hasn’t “babied” pitchers; the pitch count and innings restrictions were a response to the dramatic changes to the game that have effectively destroyed the long-term health of pitchers. Look at the velocity drops (and, in some cases, injuries) of CC Sabathia, Tim Lincecum, Josh Beckett, Dan Haren, Mark Buerhle and others who have racked up a lot of innings at a young age. While other players their ages may be able to preserve (or even increase) their velocities, these guys are on the steady downslope. Do you really think the problem is that they haven’t pitched enough?

Tim_Lincecum_2009

This leads to a very important clarification I should make: I’ll agree that pitchers need to throw more – but only if that means they pitch less. In other words, we need to get them away from specificity. We know too much specificity hurts them – and we also know that pitching off the mound generally increases arm stress as compared to flat-ground throwing, especially when that mound work is highly competitive. Whether it’s long toss, weighted balls, flat-ground work, or a combination of all these things, players need to find a way to build or preserve arm speed without the stress of the mound.

On the whole, pitchers aren’t being babied. In fact, in most cases, they’re being pushed more than ever before – and if you just keep pushing, something will always give.

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10 Responses to “Baseball Injuries: Are Pitchers Really Getting “Babied?””

  1. doug weeks Says:

    Can you tell me what exactly throwing a weighted balls does? Is this from Olympic athletes? Like does a shot putter train with heavier shot put, javelin…etc?

    Does the same thing apply to batting I swing a heavier bat so my swing gets faster?

    I would think throwing or swinging lighter things would make the muscle learn to be faster? So are weighted balls just for building larger muscles?

  2. don Says:

    why is it that pitching off a mound increases arm stress more than throwing off flat ground? Seems to me that simulating game conditions as much as possible would be a more specific sport demand than throwing off flat ground. I understand throwing and its importance in building arm strength, but would like to hear your rationale for being so.

  3. Tammy Kovaluk Says:

    Great post! This is just speculation, but goes along with specialization…I feel that even though strength and conditioning has advanced, pitchers especially at a young age are being over programmed and not ‘playing’ enough. It seems every youth or adolescent I meet lacks stability and strength, especially lower body and core. When I was young, we were climbing and playing on anything and everything (not to mention old school labor on a farm). A coach I know commented how they would play at the beach, barefoot, walking on logs and other objects. How many kids do that now? Their ‘play time’ is spent on the computer, video games, or television. They pitch and hit, and stretch every now and again. Although no research to back this up, I feel it plays a role. Thanks for the post!
    Tammy Kovaluk,
    Msc Cand, CSCS, FMSC

  4. Eric Cressey Says:

    Don,

    It’s been demonstrated in the research. I suspect it has to do with the downhill plane exaggerating the effects of gravity to increase stress, particularly at max external rotation when valgus stress is highest.

  5. Eric Cressey Says:

    Doug,

    Give this a read: http://ecressey.wpengine.com/weighted-baseballs-safe-and-effective-or-stupid-and-dangerous

  6. Alan Says:

    In regards to the biomechanics, do you think that pitchers who “optimize” mechanics are emphasizing performance or decreased stress on the throwing arm? I wrote about pitching biomechanics on my blog. Thoughts?

    https://optimalmovementpt.wordpress.com

  7. Keenan Says:

    Excellent piece Eric. Appreciate the amount of detail you put into each aspect. Any chance you have looked into the way Daiske Matusaka, Tanaka, and the other Japanese pitchers went through their weekly in season pitching progressions. I have heard they had heavy volume bullpen pitching sessions in between starts.

  8. Eric Cressey Says:

    I think it’s a bit of both, Alan. Good movement is good movement, so they likely cancel one another out.

  9. Eric Cressey Says:

    Yes, Keenan; they do have a high workload. You can get away with doing more of that on the 6/7 day rotation they’re on overseas. Switching to a 5-day rotation here in the US is a big adjustment, and they often wind up overdoing it between starts as a results.

    Also, I’m a firm believer that a lot of them are “damaged goods” when they get here because of high pitch/inning counts prior to leaving Japan. Tanaka is a good example.

  10. Doug Says:

    Eric,

    Thanks for your reply I missed that article on weighted balls make a lot of sense.


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